Is Mandarin a Chinese Word?

Oct 12, 2009 at 21:00 | Posted in Language 语言 | 1 Comment
Tags: , , ,

Is Mandarin a Chinese Word?
(This page’s link is http://bit.ly/14UANg)
Initial posting October 12, 2009; Last revision March 4, 2010
By Song White

Years ago when I was asked if I speak Mandarin, I was puzzled. What’s Mandarin? I later learned that “Mandarin” means the official spoken Chinese language. I am not alone – much of my Chinese friends have the same confusion. That’s because we don’t call it “Mandarin” in China. Instead, it’s “Putonghua”, meaning “common spoken language”.

In China, the Chinese language goes by “Hanyu” (汉语). “Han”, the largest ethnic group in China, accounts for 92% of the population. “Yu” means “language”. Hanyu, the Han Language, is known as “Chinese” today. College Chinese classes are Han Language classes, instead of “Chinese classes” (中文课). For example, Chinese language curriculum offers Classical Han Language (古代汉语), Modern Han Language (现代汉语), etc. There are 50+ ethnic groups in China; many have their own languages, such as Tibetan, Uyghur, Mongol, Sawcuengh (Zhuangyu), and Manchu. “Hanyu” is used to differentiate itself from these languages. The most often used Chinese document, the Chinese currency Renminbi, has five different languages printed in the back as shown in the image below: Hanyu (in Pinyin), Tibetan, Uyghur, Mongol, and Zhuangyu.

Chinese currency renminbi 10yuan 1999 edition back 5 languages-Hanyu (in Pinyin), Tibetan, Uyghur, Mongol, and Zhuangyu

The word “Chinese” (中文) is seldom used unless it is in the context of comparing with foreign languages such as with English or French.

When Chinese refer to the spoken languages or the dialects among groups distinguished by geographical locations in China, it’s typically a compound word: the location plus the word for spoken language, “hua”(话). For example, Guangdonghua (Cantonese) for Guangdong dialect, Beijinghua for Beijing dialect, and Shanghaihua for Shanghai dialect. For the standard spoken language used in all locations, the word again is Putonghua. “Mandarin” (国语, 官话) is unpopular and sounds old fashioned.

Why is there such a word as “Mandarin”? The ruling ethnic group of China in the 17th and 18th centuries is Manchu. Coming from northeast, the Manchu conquered China and established the Qing Dynasty around 1645. The Qing is also called the Manqing or the Manqing Empire, and it was ended in 1911. During its 260-year ruling, Manchus stayed in political power and were the most privileged class (Mongols were next, and Hans were below them). However, the Manchu language education didn’t come to match its political expansion. Being the official language of Manqing, Manchu language wasn’t popularly used among the ruled. Instead, Hanyu sustained and became one of the official languages. Most bureau names and signs in the Forbidden City, the heart of the Manqing, are in both Han characters and Manchu. The same held true in other Manqing’s palaces, resorts, mansions, royal tombs, and cemeteries, though most of them forbad access to the Hans.

While the Han was losing power during the 17th and 18th centuries, Manchu enriched the Han Language in the northeast cities including the capital, Beijing (north in Chinese is “bei”; Beijing means the “northern capital”). For example, a dessert, “saqima” (萨其马), is Manchu’s “sacima”; “blah” is “xiabai”(瞎掰) with “bai” from Manchu’s “baibi”. Hanyu with the Manchu influence spread southward. In 1728, Emperor Yongzheng issued a decree ordering the officials in two southern provinces, Fujian and Guangdong,  to conduct business in Mandarin (Guanhua官话) (http://www.bozhounet.cn/jiaoyu/001/2/200803041/1655161.shtml). In the late 18th and early 19th, the governments of Manqing and later the Republic of China made the Beijing dialect the official national standard spoken language. I reason the word “Mandarin” being the translation to represent the official spoken language of China during that time.

An Internet finding is different – Encyclopædia Britannica states that “Mandarin” “comes through the Portuguese mandarim from Malay mantri, a counselor or minister of state; the ultimate origin of the word is the Sanskrit root man- meaning ‘to think.’” (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/361580/mandarin) The Portuguese conquered Malacca in 1511 when China was under Han’s Ming Dynasty. Ended in 1644 by the Manchu, the Ming Dynasty had Nanjinghua as its official spoken language. That means there were about 133 years, from 1511 to 1644, when the so-called “Mandarin” was actually Nanjinghua. A city in south China and the first capital of the Ming, Nanjing dialect is different in many ways from that of Beijing. Was “mantri” in Malay used to name the language, Nanjinghua, spoken by the Chinese during the Ming Dynasty? Did “mantri” later refer to another spoken language, Beijinghua, during the Manqing Empire? Or, does it mean any official national standard spoken language of China, regardless being Nanjinghua or Beijinghua? I hope the experts of Portuguese or Malay can help with this.

Is “Mandarin” a Chinese word then? It’s not if the word comes through the Portuguese mandarim from Malay mantri. If it is a translated word based on the Manqing by the Manchus, it may be a Chinese word if you believe Manchu is an ethnic group of China; it goes the other way if you think otherwise.

By the way, nearly one hundred years after the end of the Manqing Empire, Manchu today can be found in written form next to Han characters on the name boards of many buildings from the Manqing time as I noted earlier. There is one and the only one Manchu elementary school in the country, in Sanjiazitun near Qiqihar in Heilongjiang Province (http://www.china.com.cn/city/txt/2007-07/26/content_8584001.htm). Large volumes of Manqing documents in Manchu are stored in libraries in Beijing and in the northeast provinces in China, and there are few people capable of reading them. There are Government funded machine translation projects in progress attempting to automatically translate the archives (http://www.lndangan.gov.cn/mwmy1/mymw8.htm).

The article “In China, the Forgotten Manchu Seek to Rekindle Their Glory” on Wall Street Journal (10/3/09 http://bit.ly/6drS6) triggered me to research more and write it down in this journal.

[Revised based on the modified version for Translorial submitted March 3, 2010.]

Jade Rabbit On the Moon 月宫玉兔

Oct 02, 2009 at 12:19 | Posted in Chinese Culture 中华文化, Culture, Localization 本土化 | Leave a comment
Tags:

(Original posting  by Song on September 8, 08 http://www.beijingshowandgo.com)

One of the Chinese tales around the moon is about Lady Changer and a rabbit family.

Long time ago there were 10 suns in the sky. The earth was extremely warm, so warm that plants withered and animals could not live. A warrior, Houyi, came along. He marched, climbed, and finally reached the highest point of the Kunlun Mountains. Using his arrows, he shot down the suns one by one. After 9 suns were down, he left the last one untouched in the sky, but ordered the sun to rise and set on a schedule to support the earth.

Houyi married a beautiful girl, Changer. Many young men gathered asking for to be trained by Houyi to be a warrior. One day Houyi met Goddess Wang and received a small package of herb that secures immortality. However, the herb also automatically lifts an herb-user away from the earth forever. This was nothing Houyi wanted because Houyi did not want to leave his wife. He passed the herb to Changer and asked her to keep it safe. The secret was discovered by one of the students, Pengmeng.

One day all the students followed Houyi out to hunt in the Mountains. Pengmeng sneaked out of the group. He, with a sword in his hand, found Changer and asked her for the herb. Changer, instead of letting an evil become immortal, swallowed the herb herself. She was lifted out of the window immediately and flew through the sky. In the sky, she found out that the moon is the closest planet to the earth. She chose to stay in the moon so she could see her husband from the closest distance she could get.

Houyi came back from hunting and found no wife. He went out in the night air crying into the night sky. He saw that the moon that night was extremely bright and seemingly having his wife’s figure swaying. He went to chase the moon, but the moon moved back when he moved forward. He could never make it. He then setup a small table with incense burner and covered the table with her favorite food and fruit. Many villagers joined in.

One day, a rabbit dad of a rabbit family was called in by Jade Emperor to the Emperor’s Heaven Palace in the moon. The rabbit Dad saw the lone and sad Changer, and discovered her story. After returning home, he discussed with the rabbit Mom on sending one of their four children to accompany Changer. The rabbit Mom felt sad for Changer, but heart-broken when realizing that she had to separate with her own child. After learning the tragedy, all four children volunteered to go and to live with Changer. At the end, the youngest one was chosen, left the earth, became the Jade Rabbit and stayed in the moon with Lady Changer forever.

If you look hard at the moon, you should see the Jade Rabbit and Lady Changer still living there today.

(Original posting Sep 8, 08 by Song at http://www.beijingshowandgo.com/login.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fmembers%2fshareplaza_zoomed_in.aspx%3fItem%3dTr9%26ItemTitle%3dJade%2520Rabbit%2520On%2520the%2520Moon%26SharePostTimeandBy%3dSep%25208%2c%252008%2520by%2520Song&Item=Tr9&ItemTitle=Jade%20Rabbit%20On%20the%20Moon&SharePostTimeandBy=Sep%208,%2008%20by%20Song)

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.
Entries and comments feeds.